A “cultural exchange” program is acknowledged as an important part of any internationalizing training. Such a program is a part of a “comprehensive institutional transformation process that aims to integrate international and intercultural dimensions in the mission and the substantive features of upper training institutions” (Codina et al., 2013, p. 1). The Philippine government has accepted this truth so much so that it has turn into a half of The Philippine Development Plan to assist promote Philippine tradition and values to the worldwide community (National Economic and Development Authority, 2017). Together with two different goals, particularly, (1) to ensure clean, environment friendly, and self-centered governance, and (2) to pursue swift and truthful administration of justice, cultural promotion is taken into account main in the enhancement of the social fabric underneath the theme “Malasakit” (Concern).
The extent of globalization in greater training differs depending on the educational area and the institution (Danish Ministry of Education, 2010). In Denmark, the number of college students within the academy and professional bachelor education schemes who complete a half of their education exterior of the country is less than within the ones who end in the local universities. A well-founded globalization of the occupation in the academy and programs of the professional bachelor training results in quality and encourages young college students to pursue greater schooling. Additionally, a student’s competitiveness is maintained via a cultural exchange program where he/she acquires the skills essential to perform internationally.
Adjusting to completely different cultures helps students recognize that cultural adaptability is key to the success of knowledgeable. Accommodating differences in culture will range throughout teams. Accommodation will rely upon the standard of communication that occurs to barter uncertainties throughout cross-cultural transactions or interactions. Cultural consciousness training helps in improving students’ communication abilities (Maclachlan, 2010), essential in an more and more international skilled environment. On the one hand, new professionals in an international work setting should deal with the social milieu where the profession is embedded. On the other hand, they also should face organizational tradition, which is more focused on targets but just isn’t detached from the social milieu. Greater ease and competency in a multi-level cultural environment result in larger professional competency by way of entry to a common sense-making throughout the office (Watkins, 2013). Sense-making is defined as ” a collaborative course of of creating shared awareness and understanding out of various individuals’ views and diversified pursuits” (para. 6).
It has long been established that the success of expatriate employees is set by “how nicely they’ll be taught from experience in overseas assignments” (Yamazaki, n.d.). Working in a international surroundings requires that one becomes adept in navigating an unfamiliar surroundings and numerous cultures. Individuals try to fit in with the host culture and regulate him/herself so as to keep correct relationships and obtain social interaction (Felicen & Celis, 2012). But more than adapting to a number country’s culture or to that of organizations, greater training must help students to guide in an intercultural setting. “Global managers should adapt how they do their work to the worldwide context,” posited Deal, Leslie, Dalton, and Ernst (2003). Experiential Learning Theory created 12 taxonomies of intercultural competency and they are as follows: (1) Human relationship skills; (2) Caring, respect, and understanding individuals of various cultural backgrounds; (3) Action and initiative expertise; (4) Listening and remark abilities; (5) Tolerance of ambiguity and stress management expertise; (6) Interaction expertise; (7) Management expertise; (8) Analytical abilities; (9) Decision expertise; (10) Communication and language skills; (11) Technical job expertise; and (12) Adaptability and flexibility (Yamazaki, n.d.).
Cultural Exchange Program within the Philippines
To have the flexibility to convey concerning the wanted modifications in future generations to assist them cope and excel with the more and more diverse cultural panorama in workplaces everywhere in the world, various choices are given to students to experience totally different cultures. The Work and Travel program providers, in partnership with a quantity of colleges, present cultural exchange applications across the totally different universities within the Philippines. Some of the applications provided are the Work and Travel program the place college students spend a productive summer from March to June by working and, at the similar time, they are given a 30-day grace interval to journey and explore the host nation. While they’re working, they’re given a wage to spend for his or her day-to-day expenses. On the opposite hand, internship/career training programs are additionally offered, particularly, for graduates. Internship applications are for those individuals who graduated a year prior, whereas career training packages are for those individuals who graduated about two years earlier. In both of those programs, graduates are also given the prospect to be skilled overseas for 6 to 18 months. The final program provided could be the special curiosity program where programs are customized for a person or a bunch of individuals. This program focuses on cultural, mental and sports enrichment, and culinary excursions.
One of the accredited agencies that facilitate and assist the students who wish to be part of the Work and Travel Program is First Place Incorporated (FPI). First Place started in 1999. It is an schooling counseling organization that helps and assists college students and young professionals to attend coaching, internships cultural exchanges, travel alternatives, and work-study programs. They ship students and younger professionals, not solely to the United States of America, but in addition to international locations in Europe, and in Australia. The organization’s mission is to supply their applicants with safe and difficult opportunities to reinforce their abilities, studying, and values. In addition, FPI is the only organization within the Philippines that may be a member of WYSE Work Abroad Association, a merger of the Golbal Work Experience Association (GWEA) an the International Association for Educational Work Exchange Programs (IAEWEP). It can be an affiliate of the sector affiliation memeber of the distinguished World Youth student & Educational Travel Confederation (WYSETC) based mostly in the Netherlands. Currently, FPI handles 75 faculties. Examples of these schools are ABE International College, Arellano University, Asia Pacific College of Advanced Studies, Ateneo de Manila University, Centro Escolar University, De La Salle College of Saint Benilde, Lyceum of the Philippines University, St. Paul University Manila, and University of Santo Tomas (First Place, 2015a).
St. Paul University Manila on Tourism and Cultural Exchange Program
St. Paul University Manila continues to reside up to its character as a pioneering spirit driven by its founders. In 2004, previously St. Paul College Manila was awarded the “university status” upon the certification of Commission on Higher Education. In the identical yr, courses in Tourism started. The following 12 months, the university turned co-educational, recognizing the necessity for diversity in its continuing development and improvement as an establishment. The Language Development Center was additionally created with multi-level programs for different languages to guide college students and professionals. In 2006, the university signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with St. Louis College in Thailand for faculty and scholar change program. Eventually, it was adopted by another MOA with Ehwa Women’s University in Korea and Beijing Tongda Century International Educational Consultation Co. Ltd. for instructional and cultural exchanges as nicely. It can also be an affiliate of the sector affiliation member of the a merger of the Global Work Experience Association (GWEA) and the International Association for Educational Work prestigious World Youth Student & Educational Travel Confederation (WYSETC) primarily based in the Netherlands. Beijing Tongda Century International Educational Consultation Co. Ltd. for instructional and cultural exchanges as properly. In 2011, the preliminary survey for the Tourism Program was held for accreditation functions. Later, it gave the program candidate standing along with different enterprise courses. Presently, the college together with its outstanding packages continues its custom and legacy of academic excellence and repair to others because it responds to the rising challenges of a more technological and highly globalized world (St. Paul University Manila Paul, 2014).
According to Dr. Mary Grace Leongson (G. Leongson, personal communication, March 31, 2016), one of the pioneers of the Work and Travel Program in St. Paul University Manila, there isn’t a exclusivity clause between the University and FPI, albeit the 2 had just celebrated their tenth year anniversary of partnership, as they’ve worked together since Work and Travel started. Their MOA is renewed annually. In the MOA signed by both events, the university’s objectives in integrating the Work and Travel Program are to expand the coaching opportunities of the students and to let the scholars experience the cross-cultural aspects and the hidden curriculum of this system. This is intended for students so that they may experience how to live independently for 3 months abroad, and have the chance to travel.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) on Work and Travel Program
Recently, CHED has acquired stories that college students have misconceptions that the Work and Travel Program is a coaching and employment program instead of an Exchange Visitor Program (EVP). Hence, students end up working in jobs not related to their course. Nevertheless, college students are being recruited in this system. In reality, there is an increase in the variety of college students being recruited. Thus, CHED reminded Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) that the Work and Travel Program is totally different from on-the-job training and employment applications. Students be part of the program for the only purpose of immersing themselves in the culture of one other nation, and in return, share their own culture. They are to not expect that they will gain again the expenses they have incurred. Also, it’s not necessary to match their profession with the job they’re going to have, because the place being supplied to them is just on the entry-level. Furthermore, HEIs had been additionally reminded that they should give authentic and full particulars to college students engaged in this program and that they should be partnering with respectable recruitment companies to protect the welfare of the scholars. In addition to this, HEIs are additionally referred to as to suppose about the Intern Program and Trainee Program. These packages are made for foreign school students and fresh graduate students to also experience the tradition and to have training in their chosen subject in the United States of America (Licuanan, 2016).
On-the-job coaching is totally different from the Work and Travel Program. However, the output it provides is pertinent in a sense that it each presents the abilities and capabilities that a participant acquires by way of proper training and unique experiences. An on-the-job coaching is usually carried out by managers or experienced workers. The college students are to be trained by these folks to allow them to build private relationships and have ideas about how the corporate runs and how they will fit in. They may also encounter lots of various character types among staff and learn to work together with superiors (Heathfield, 2015).
On-the-job training is common in each organization. However, the actual training comes when the trainee gets educated by the supervisor. This is simpler since trainees get feedback instantly and, in flip, they will enhance their efficiency quickly. This does not solely enhance the self-confidence of the trainees; it also helps employees build relationships with their fellow colleagues. People who endure on-the-job coaching normally do tasks underneath the supervision of others. Usually, these persons are oriented by their colleagues on the job they’d be taking. They are supplied with a mentor who helps and guides them each step of the way. This activity is a nice way to introduce latest graduates or new staff to the actual world as a end result of they’re supplied with real-life experiences that might make them extra confident. Furthermore, this exercise gives a background of the job that one shall be getting into. With this at hand, folks will get the prospect to interact with others and know issues that can’t be realized at school but solely in the actual world (McQuerrey, n.d.).
The Work and Travel Program is by far completely different from on-the-job training and they are two completely different entities; nevertheless; they’re associated in a way that on-the-job coaching is a half of the experience that Work and Travel offers. On-the-job coaching is part of the curriculum of any course in the university, while the Work and Travel Program is proscribed to chose universities and hospitality programs only. Nevertheless, every scholar needs to bear such programs before graduating because this is a probability for faculty kids to apply every little thing they have discovered in school. This is essential because it exposes them to enterprise and likewise offers them details about the sort of trade or job they might need to enter in the future. In addition, it will equip him/her with better expertise and experiences that he/she can use to contribute to the sphere during which he/she can be working, and for his/her personal personal achievement, as well.
The Work and Travel Program in St. Paul University (SPU) Manila
According to Leongson, Chair of the Hotel and Restaurant Management (HRM) Program and the Graduate School Program of the College of Business and Management of SPU Manila, who initiated and started the Work and Travel Program at SPU Manila within the year 2007, one of many benefits of joining the program is that it provides the individuals precise experience within the hospitality business. When the Work and Travel Program was initiated in SPU Manila, the very first members have been the HRM college students of the university. It was additionally adopted by the Tourism and Business Management Programs in the succeeding years. It may not be a guarantee that the participant’s practicum requirement could be credited through the Work and Travel Program, however there’s a greater risk of it being granted if his/her work is completely associated with the sector of research that he/she is specializing in. Ever because the program started, First Place Incorporated was the one company that was allowed and accredited by SPU Manila to facilitate the participation of scholars who express their interest in becoming a member of the Work and Travel Program. From 1999 to present, First Place has repeatedly been constructing its legacy of enabling 1000’s of students and younger professionals in learning self-reliance and independence while building lasting friendships in other cultures (First Place, 2015b).
According to the testimonies of some of the 2010 – 2013 Work and Travel members from totally different universities/colleges in the Philippines, they were given a once- in-a-lifetime experience once they had the chance to satisfy good and friendly individuals overseas and to be involved of their day by day lives. In addition, they also had the chance to become extra aware of the industry they intended to work in. They had the prospect to adapt to and be taught one other culture and share their very own culture as nicely. They also had the opportunity to boost their personalities and confidence, and developed their communication, social, and drawback solving expertise. They discovered things they did not learn about themselves. They said that with the assistance of this system, they have been able to be taught values like turning into independent and coming out of their consolation zones, budgeting their own money, changing into more mature, enduring hardships, and going through responsibilities. In reality, they extremely beneficial the program not only because they had the chance to experience life working and touring overseas, but in addition because they thought of it as a stepping stone for achieving their dreams and targets.
According to Leongson, the primary objective of Work and Travel Program for the Tourism college students is to expand their training opportunities. But since the program is cross- cultural in nature, SPU Manila is trying to target not only the skill improvement of the students but additionally the cross-cultural side and hidden curriculum of the program. This is as a result of, whereas the skills may be realized in the Philippines, working in one other country poses distinctive challenges. As a cross-cultural program, it underscores the cross-cultural expertise of the scholars dwelling independently in the course of their stay overseas. At the identical time, it is a chance for them to journey. In addition, this program also allows the scholars to expertise the means to apply for a visa and other documents. Indeed, it brings about changes and progress among the many college students, which may make them better people.
In order to achieve the objective(s) talked about above, SPU Manila makes use of an evaluation software to observe and assess the performance of the students and gain information from their completely different unique experiences. It is addressed to and signed specifically by the coaching supervisor of the participant and the participants themselves, which includes an accurate score of their skills and efficiency at work.
Uncovering the completely different experiences of the students who’ve participated in this system is hoped to give useful and significant data that might guide and help Tourism and different hospitality packages in the college. It also can present opportunities for college kids participating in the Work and Travel Program to increase their probabilities at employment on account of direct linkages made with worldwide organizations. Realizing that the Work and Travel Program might give varied experiences to the scholars, the researchers consider that the research could enlighten the minds of its readers on how and in what means this kind of applications can have an result on the scholars who participate in it.
Figure 1 shows that the experiences of Work and Travel participants have been gathered to become the muse of the researchers’ study. These lived experiences are thought-about important in phenomenological inquiries. The lived experiences of the Work and Travel Program individuals had been subjected to thematic analysis. Afterwhich, the researchers used the emergent information to come up with a set of guidelines as an output.
Figure1.Work and Travel Experiences of Past Participants
Statement of the Problem
This examine aims to give you a set of pointers as an output established and gathered from the totally different Work and Travel experiences of Filipino Tourism students of chosen universities. In a phenomenological examine, such as this, a grand tour query that surfaces “lived experiences” is used, ensuing in the following basic query for this examine: “What are the lived experiences of the work and journey program participants from selected universities within the National Capital Region?”
The study adopted the phenomenological strategy find out the completely different experiences of Tourism graduates of SY from chosen universities in National Capital Region who have been individuals from First Place Inc. almost about their work and journey exterior of the nation. The interviewees came from 5 different universities within NCR (five informants from university 1, two informants from college 2, two informants from college three, one participant from college four, and lastly, two informants from university 5, totalling 12 interviewees who participated in the work and travel program). The informants were recruited through snowball sampling. The research was carried out in a suitable location that was both convenient for the members and the researchers, corresponding to a espresso shop, or a closed room within the interviewee’s favorite restaurant or his/her house. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews until the saturation point was reached using open-ended questions that probed the informants on their lived experiences. In the method of the interview, a digicam, voice recorder, pen, and paper were used for documentation. The researchers reached the data saturation interval through the eighth to tenth of the twelve interviewees.
￼The researchers utilized Giorgi’s technique in analyzing the information. Giorgi’s method is used usually to “uncover the meaing of a phenomenon as experienced by a human through the identification of essential themes” (Koivisto et al., 2002, para. 3). Giorgi’s methodology is crucial to this study as this may be a phenomenological inquiry in search of the same. The researchers dug deeper on the specificity of the totally different meanings of knowledge to reach at “psychologically sensitive meanings.” After which, the essential psychological construction, the lived experiences, of which some description of the phenomenon just isn’t known by the members, is surfaced. Lastly, the obtained ultimate structure describes and states how the phenomenon is lived by the members (Giorgi, 2003). Under the info gatehring process, the researches used the thematic evaluation process before establihsing significant patterns of knowledge type the direct narratives of the informants.
Three main categories were established on account of the thematic evaluation. These are the following: “having the opportunity to know the industry properly and enhance one’s functionality,” “undergoing totally different cultural exchange experiences for better development,” and “being capable of practice intercultural immersion.”
Work and Travel, as viewed by the informants, was a chance, an expertise and a learning process. It also supplied cultural features and acquisition and improvement of expertise needed for one to be essentially aggressive in a global extent. While in this system, college students slowly fashioned their own duties and tasks. There had been new activities every day that students would steadily get used to. There had been new daily routines that have been different from their routines in their nation. There had been additionally connections and inspirations along the greatest way. As a result, coaching overseas gave the students the braveness to grab opportunities and to achieve insights. It was one of the many things that created a optimistic outlook in a student’s life. It led the scholars to a very new career path that impressed them. This was how the students received inspired to work out of their house country. Nevertheless, the most important benefits obtained from this system had been the experiences discovered and investments gained for the future (Güldoğan, 2010).
As one of many informants stated, totally different nationalities and cultures were not hindrances to having new friends and family. Experience taught her that even with that short span of time, she discovered a family outdoors her usual environment. On the other hand, another participant mentioned that she grew to become independent and that, although she was nonetheless a student, she was in a position to study practical life abilities and the truth life imposes, which she knows was waiting for her outside the four partitions that she was used to. The students who embraced the tradition of the opposite country had been able to make realizations and connections. They grew to become extra imaginative and versatile to the modifications of their surroundings (Paul, 2014). People with many experiences of different cultures had been more in a position to talk nicely with different folks, as properly as understand the things that have been taking place around them.
Yeung (2013) emphasised that interacting with individuals from numerous backgrounds and methods of life could help the students uncover new issues from the other cultures and discover good companions. There is a great possibility that the students might work with people from different cultures all through their careers; thus, it was fundamental to see the world from completely different views as early as attainable. Several of them mentioned that they were in a position to meet, work, and become friends with other people of different nationalities. One participant mentioned that she noticed and discovered how skilled these folks from varied cultures were when it got here to work. An interviewee stated that she liked to satisfy people and was interested in what was of their culture that might be learned. On the other hand, one participant stated that working with and for different individuals from totally different backgrounds was not as simple because it seemed as a end result of one could not please everyone and one all the time had to actually regulate one’s self to have completely different views. Work and Travel provided a significant expertise for the participants, especially in that they had been capable of share the values and the Filipino culture to others and had been capable of enrich their own tradition and expertise as properly. It was a cultural gain in a sense that one was in a position to experience everything personally somewhat than merely learning it via words and photos solely.
Having the Opportunity to Know the Industry Well and Improve One’s Capability
The first theme fashioned was “having the opportunity to know the trade nicely and improve one’s functionality.” Under this theme have been categories specifically: “opportunity,” “enhancing of expertise,” “exposure to certain business,” “practicum and work orientation.”
Matrix1.First theme with Opportunity as category and its sub-categories
The responses that fell beneath this theme are as follows:
> In-encourage din naman ako ng mama ko, ng parents ko na mag-participate kasi nga malaking bagay din talaga yung nakapag-naka-experience ka ng trabaho sa US or kahit sa ibang bansa” (I was inspired by my dad and mom to participate because of the advantage it presents when you have an experience working abroad);
The encouragement and support of my family and family members because it’s a nice alternative for me whereas I was still a student;
Para hindi rin kasi mahirap mag-apply for jobs. (so that will in all probability be easier to apply for jobs.);
And additionally gusto ko makapunta dun kasi feeling ko that’s an opportunity na din na magagamit ko in the future as a key na makapag-abroad or migrate in US (I also needed to go there as a outcome of I felt that it was a chance which I may use sooner or later as a key to go overseas or migrate in the US) since I don’t have any relative abroad;
Dahil dito sa Work and Travel, nagkaroon ako ng opportunity to talk in entrance lots of people and discuss my expertise (Because of the Work and Travel, I had the chance to talk in front of a lot of people and speak about my experiences);
… malaking alternative na yun para sakin to grow as a person ayun” (that is a giant alternative for me to grow as a person);
Malawak pa pala ‘yung pwede naming puntahan. Ang dami pa palang opportunities na pwede naming pasukan. Hindi kami pwede maglimit sa isang bagay na iisipin namin hanggang doon lang kami (I realized that the trade was broad and there were plenty of job opportunities we might enter. We couldn’t limit ourselves and assume that we will only go so far).
“Enhancing of skills” was comprised of sub-categories which had been “learning of know-how,” “developing interpersonal abilities,” “serving as training ground,” “gaining sufficient abilities,” “developing English vocabulary,” and “developing interpersonal expertise, intrapersonal skills and perspective.” According to Kingston (2013), working in new environments could be a fantastic experience for these international students because this would offer a helpful skill for his or her future careers in their very own nations. The responses corresponding to these are the following:
> ‘Pag nag US ka parang iba ‘yung expertise (at) tradition mas marami kang matutunan (when you go to the US, you will notice that their know-how and culture is a bit different from ours and you will study a lot);
I additionally want to increase my English expertise and social expertise kasi want ‘yun sa course namin (I additionally want to expand my English skills and social abilities because that’s what is required in our course);
I wished to achieve work experience, to learn abilities, to travel, to meet new folks and to find a way to experience and appreciate different culture, and to achieve independence;
But as I was processing all the requirements wanted, I understand that it’s like a training floor for me that I can use in going through the “real world”;
‘Yung communication expertise mo, na-develop mo, kasi mas marami ka pang malalaman na English, although before naman alam mo na ‘yung that means nito, pero dahil nga d’on nasanay ka na araw-araw kang nakikipag-communicate sa mga Americans, so mas nade-develop mo ‘yung English expertise mo” (Your communication abilities were developed because you would be taught extra of English words although at first you already know what these words imply but because of your work, you would get used to speaking with the foreigners a lot and eventually would develop your English skills);
… na-develop ‘yung confidence ko, lalo na sa pag-speak ng English, kasi earlier than, parang isa*’yun sa naghi-hinder sa akin magtuloy ng Work and Travel kasi, natatakot akong makipag-usap ng straight English sa mga Americans, lalo na diba mabibilis sila magsalita. Na-earn ko ‘yung social expertise ko, kasi ang dami kong na-meet na iba’t ibang nationalities, tapos ‘yung pagiging magaling sa teamwork at saka ‘yung pagmu- multitask, kasi doon hindi pwedeng sa isa ka lang naka-focus kasi, kailangan, habang nagka-cashier ka, nagluluto ka, nagpe-prepare ka ng meals, kailangan lahat steady”* (My confidence was developed especially in talking in English. Before, that was one factor that hindered me in becoming a member of the Work and Travel as a outcome of I was afraid to talk with the foreigners particularly that they talked too quick. I also earned my social skills as a outcome of I received to fulfill people of different nationalities. I additionally mastered teamwork and multitasking as a outcome of in working there, it was not sufficient that your focus was solely on one factor. It might be that when you have been cashiering, you have been also cooking and making ready foods. And it was continuous) talking the English language expertise and their interpersonal and intrapersonal expertise;
Before nahihiya pa kami. Hindi kami ganito kadaldal. Hindi kami ganito ka- open” (Before, we have been nonetheless so shy. We didn’t actually speak an extreme amount of. We were not that open in distinction to today.).
The informants labored within the tourism and leisure establishments corresponding to resorts, restaurants, or leisure parks. It also included sales folks, cashiers, and hosts. Some of the informants labored as lodge room attendants and narrated that what they did was the standard cleansing of the rooms till they completed the designated rooms assigned to them, whereas some worked as park journey operators and narrated that what they did was operate the rides and help the visitors for security functions. The different individuals worked as part of the cashier and sales group and narrated that their work was extra of the park’s income.
Matrix2.First theme with Enhancing of skills as category and its sub-categories
“Exposure to a sure industry” was comprised of sub-categories which had been “exposure to hospitality trade,” “having work associated to their course,” “learning more concerning the hospitality business,” “experiencing the trade they needed to pursue,” and “experiencing hospitality and tourism business in USA.” It was actually an excellent expertise as a result of it widened one’s scope of data not only with the business itself but additionally with other individuals, and, subsequently, gave one wider connections. Informants stated that what they valued most upon becoming a member of the Work and Travel Program was the expertise it gave them, particularly, the exposure to the hospitality industry. Another informant stated that she was inspired to join the program because of the prospect that it supplied to her of working within the United States. An informant also stated that she had experienced what it was wish to be in the hospitality business and knew that it was significant for her to know the way the industry works in actuality. An informant then mentioned that being within the subject made her understand that the hospitality business was more of service, not solely for one’s self but additionally for other individuals. One informant even narrated that it was her first time to experience an extended flight in a Boeing 747 and she was amazed seeing how the flight attendants did their jobs and he or she even roamed round airports just to familiarize herself with the industry. Additionally, one informant stated that the Work and Travel Program actually mirrored the real world as a outcome of from there, one would really see the business that he/she needed to pursue sooner or later and that the tourism industry was really a booming trade. Another informant mentioned about her experiences in the hospitality industry that helped her become open-minded in regards to the field that she was in. On the other hand, an informant mentioned that the expertise that the program had dropped at her was the widening of the scope of her knowledge not solely on the trade but also with different people, which gave her wider connections.
Matrix3.First theme with Exposure to sure industry as class and its sub-categories
The practicum was comprised of a sub-category which was “practicum crediting.” Felicen & Celis (2012) noted that because of the emergence of various opportunities as a end result of globalization, networking and connections now encourage HEIs to include of their system the practice of internationalization. To achieve world competitiveness, universities welcomed adjustments and continuous innovation. Internationalization could happen if the students, the workers, the curriculum, and the activities have been to be aligned with the current cultural changes led to by internationalization. They stressed that intercultural orientation would set up great understanding of how folks from completely different cultures interact with one another. An interviewee stated that she was able to work with individuals of different nationalities. She additionally learned their culture and utilized it in her work. One interviewee notably noted wanting the expertise to be credited as practicum.
Matrix4.First theme with Practicum as class and its sub-category
“Work orientation” was comprised of sub-categories which have been: “working accurately,” “being passionate about your job,” “following works’ standard operating procedures,” “expecting a piece oriented surroundings,” “being impressed by the professionalism proven by the Americans,” “being skilled and flexible,” and “being extra responsible for work and one’s self.” Zorn, Ponick, and Peck (1995) talked about that college students who have been exposed to other cultures were extra motivated to broaden and improve their knowledge and expertise. However, this was limited because of the reality that only few individuals had been in a position to avail themselves of the chance of learning overseas. But the benefit of a two-way trade program opened alternatives to achieve data and awareness for a bigger number of college students.
Two individuals mentioned that what they expected from their work in this system was that it might be associated to the course that they have been taking. One participant said that she expected a working environment that was strict with their policies and guidelines. One participant said that she was in a place to experience performing a task that was not part of her job. Another participant mentioned that with her experience as a room attendant, one ought to always knock and ask permission first before starting to clear because there were some individuals who had been really meticulous and didn’t need their rooms to be cleaned. Another participant additionally stated that in her work as a ride attendant, there were many adults who did not comply with guidelines like going on a journey supposed for the youngsters solely and limited by the height limit. Some participants stated that that they had shoppers who gave them tips, and for them, it was unforgettable. One participant then mentioned that what she learned while working abroad was that one could not please all people. The mentality that “customer is at all times right” was what all the time prevails and as an worker, one always has to adjust. Another participant mentioned that while working, she experienced being transferred to totally different locations and that she was even promoted as a result of she grew to become the right-hand of her supervisor whereas she was away. Another informant narrated that her work was actually exhausting because they generally worked past ordinary work hours, and most of those times, their supervisors could be the one to convey them again to the housing as a outcome of they already missed the service bus. Another participant said that while at work, one ought to all the time have one thing to do to all the time remain productive. Some participants also mentioned that while working, they had been capable of witness how professional the folks had been and they were in a position to prove to themselves that what they at all times hear was true. One participant even compared the working expertise in the Philippines and abroad. She stated that overseas, they were not treated like infants. They were really forced to work, in contrast to in the Philippines, she stated firms solely let them do simple jobs. One participant stated that after this system, she realized the significance of work and how hard it was to earn cash for a dwelling. With regards to what that they had discovered, one participant stated that she realized that while working, shortcuts weren’t allowed. One would really have to do the work completely. She also talked about that one ought to be passionate and give importance to any job assigned to him/her so that on the finish of the day, he/she would achieve a way of self-fulfillment.
Undergoing Different Cultural Exchange Experiences for Better Development
Matrix5.First theme with Work orientation as class and its sub-categories
The second theme formed was “undergoing different cultural exchange experiences for higher growth.” Under this theme had been categories, namely: “experiences,” “personal progress,” “independence,” “travel,” and “family.”
“Experiences” comprised sub-categories which included the next: “having an experience,” “getting to expertise serving Filipino nationalities which uplifts Filipino foods,” “undergoing homesickness,” “unforgettable and awesome expertise,” “amazement with the feeling of experiencing the US,” “enjoying the working expertise,” “great experience,” “experiencing the trade they wish to pursue,” and “accepting more experiences.” Most of the interviewees stated that becoming a member of the Work and Travel Program supplied them a global experience, which gave them edge compared to others. Another interviewee stated that she was motivated to affix the program because of the thought of working, residing, and traveling within the USA. One interviewee even mentioned that having international experience was a good factor to placed on one’s resume. One participant additionally said that for the primary time, she skilled snow and he or she needed to wear a number of layers of garments due to the chilly climate. She felt intimidated because her supervisor scolded her as a end result of she couldn’t do her work fast due to her physique changes to the cold climate. One interviewee stated that certainly one of her unforgettable experiences whereas working was having a Filipino buyer and he or she was touched seeing them very happy to see a co- Filipino. Another interviewee stated that the program supplied her a fantastic expertise as a end result of she was in a position to explore and know extra people. She was additionally able to see how Filipinos turn out to be united and caring for each other when in different countries. Another interviewee narrated her expertise of being caught by police whereas traveling due to some road violations and what she realized from them was to all the time deliver a personal identification card or passport along with her all the time. One interviewee stated she was very joyful to fulfill new folks and make plenty of associates and wonderful recollections with them. While then again, she was saddened because of the loss of one of her pals as a end result of accident. Another interviewee stated that even with the unhappiness delivered to her by missing and being away from her household, she was very pleased to earn money and have the flexibility to purchase what she wished out of all her efforts. Another interviewee talked about that her experience was good because it helped her in dealing with different life conditions and made her belief herself somewhat extra. It also taught her to make selections not just for herself however for the good factor about the bulk.
Matrix6.Second theme with Experiences as category and its sub-categories
“Personal growth” was comprised of sub-categories which have been: “learning from the program,” “gaining extra self-confidence,” “feeling progress when it comes to personality,” “learning the idea of time administration,” “realizing the significance of work and money,” “learning to worth the issues they have and feeling pleased with the actual fact of incomes.” Giolando (2015) stated that students who went outside of the nation throughout their college for the purpose of work, research, or even instructing undoubtedly gained knowledge and improved self-confidence. Some members talked about that through Work and Travel, they have been in a position to travel and did everything by themselves with none assist from anybody. A participant additionally mentioned that Work and Travel made her go to locations she never expected she would have the flexibility to see. Another participant said that one would actually grow as an individual, particularly, as a outcome of one was away from family. One would really study to face up on his/her own feet and do issues independently. Still, one other participant mentioned that she experienced snow for the primary time and he or she had to wear a number of layers of garments to adapt to the very cold climate, which she was not used to.
Matrix7.Second theme with Personal progress as class and its sub-categories
“Independence” was comprised of sub-categories which were: “learning to be unbiased,” and “stand on their own,” and “being unbiased.” Swanson (n.d.) posited that the mix of working, finding out, and touring overseas allowed the person to expertise and reside like a normal person. One’s life would not be as straightforward and pleasing as how majority of individuals that dreamt of working, finding out, and touring abroad perceived it to be. This was a really rare opportunity as one ought to have sufficient courage, confidence, passion, and most of all, money. Most of the informants said that they realized to be impartial, and stay on their very own as part of this system itself. Another informant stated that she got to travel alone, lived alone, and flew to different states all by herself.
Matrix8.Second theme with Independence as category and its sub-categories
Under “travel” have been sub-categories similar to “traveling,” “traveling with none apart from participant’s themselves or with just associates,” “traveling throughout states,” “going to known locations,” “trying the local foods and purchasing,” “traveling alone and turning into a tourist to see totally different places,” “learning more in regards to the locations,” and “seeing with their very own eyes what they see in mere footage.” Travel was comprised of the participant’s experience of making an attempt the dishes of other cultures and exploring locations that the participants had visited. Some of the responses reflective of the above were:
> Tapos ‘yun nga ‘yung sa Work and Travel nagkaroon kami ng mga pals ko na mag-travel na kami kami lang, walang travel agency, walang tulong na kahit sino, kami kami lang ang nag-ayos ng itinerary namin.” (During our Work and Travel, I and my associates had the chance to travel by ourselves. We traveled with out the help of the journey company or anyone. We have been the ones who made our itinerary.);
I get to travel alone like staying in a resort and taking a taxi and flying to San ￼’yung makapag-travel ka sa mga places na hindi mo akalain na mapupuntahan mo like ‘yung New York City ganu’n” (That moment if you go to locations that you simply don’t ￼ ￼￼
Nakadagdag sa knowledge ko ang pag-travel, mas marami ka pang malalaman dahil nakita mo na sa personal ‘yung mga lugar, hindi lang puro sa Internet.” (Traveling elevated my information, I discovered so much as a result of I personally saw the places and not simply via Internet only.)
Matrix9.Second theme with Travel as category and its sub-categories
Under the sub-categories of household have been “encouragement and help from family,” “becoming reunited with relative(s) overseas,” and “appreciating the worth of household and trusting God.” Family was important to the participant’s expertise overseas. Most of them have been joyful to get all-out support and encouragement from their households and had reunited with them after years of not seeing each other. The responses related to this have been as follows:
> ￼The encouragement and support of my family and relations was an excellent alternative for me as a scholar;
Nag-grow talaga kasi malayo ka ganyan tapos since away ka sa family mo, matututunan mo talagang tumayo, matutunan mo ‘yung time administration” (I really did develop as a end result of I was far from my household. I certainly discovered to stand alone and to handle my time.);
￼I learned to worth money kasi nga as I mentioned hindi madaling magtrabaho lalo na ￼malayo ka sa family mo. Dati kasi joyful go lucky lang ako. (I realized tips on how to value ￼money as a outcome of I realized it was not straightforward to work now that you just have been away from your loved ones.); ￼
Learn the worth your family. Learn to appreciate more your family kasi dun mag-isa ka lang. Kahit na sabihin mo may workmates ka, iba pa din pag family yung kasama.” (I discovered the worth of household. I discovered to understand them more since I skilled being alone. Even if you have been along with your workmate, it was still totally different when you were along with your family);
￼I had combined feelings as a end result of I totally loved my stay there and I wished ￼to stay longer however I also missed spending time with the household and was happy to inform ￼them tales about my expertise;
￼I get to travel alone like staying in a lodge and taking a taxi and flying to San ￼Diego and I get to visit some of my relatives;
> Mae-enjoy mo naman, makakapaggala ka, at mabibili mo ang mga gusto mo. Living abroad ‘yun, mahirap rin kasi talaga. Hindi naman talaga mawawala yung pagka-miss mo sa family mo.” (You will really take pleasure in it. You can travel and purchase the things you want. That’s residing abroad, but it’s still exhausting. One can’t actually escape the sensation of missing one’s family.)
Matrix10.Second theme with Family as category and its sub-categories
Being Able to Practice Intercultural Immersion
The third theme formed was “being in a position to apply intercultural immersion.” Under this theme were the classes: “cultural exchange,” “socialization and adaptability,” and “flexibility.
Under the sub-category of “cultural exchange” were the following: “cultural positive aspects, such as acquaintances with other nationalities,” “sharing of values with different individuals,” “learning others’ culture and experiencing it firsthand,” and “being in a position to adapt and learn from it,” “curiosity about different cultures,” “sharing the cultures and values of Filipinos,” on the same time, “learning the cultures of the individuals with completely different nationalities met and skilled firsthand,” and “adopting and learning the setting and culture of others.” Below are some responses that replicate the sub-categories:
> ‘yung pagpunta namin sa New York. Kahit na sobrang saglit lang yung timeframe na pasyal namin du’n, sobrang ang ganda talaga, one of the best. Kasi, parang dati nakikita mo lang sya sa footage, tapos ngayon nandito ka na, naglalakad ka na. (When we went to New York in a brief while frame to journey, I may say that it was an attractive thing and certainly one of a form. It was as a result of before this occurred, I might only see it in photos, but now, I’m standing here);
‘yung unang experience ko is*’yung naka-travel sa ibang lugar. Nakapunta kami ng Michigan bago kami magstart ng work, tapos after nu’n is ‘yung downtown, nakita namin ‘yung Navy Pier, Skydeck, ganyan saka nakapunta rin kami sa gate ni Michael Jordan. Ayun, kahit ang lalayo ng distance nila, pinursue talaga namin na makapunta dun sa mga places na ‘yun kasi, ‘yun na lang ‘yung chance namin na makapunta, kasi nga hindi kami in-allow ng faculty na mag-extend, since maaga ‘yung pasukan.”* (The first thing I skilled was to journey to a unique place. I and my pals went to Michigan before we started to work. After that we went downtown. We’d seen the Navy Pier, Skydeck, and so on. We even went to the gate of the house of Michael Jordan. So even when the areas have been far, we pursued to these places since that was our only likelihood. This was because the college did not permit us to extend because the start of school was early.);
Eat, sleep, take a bath, and go to work. Every month, I all the time take a go away for three days as a end result of as a Work and Travel participant, it’s not just about work but in addition to take pleasure in and travel as well;
Sonakakapagkwentuhan kami and nashi-share din namin ‘yung culture ng Filipino.” (So we advised tales to them and we have been able to share the culture of Filipinos.);
Yung pag-iingat sa actions mo kasi hindi mo alam yung isang bagay na okay lang sa tradition niyo, nakaka-offend pala sa iba gan’on.” (Be careful of your actions since you don’t know that issues that are nice with your culture may be offending to others.)
Siguro na-culture shock lang ako du’n sa mga American meals. Tapos minsan kahit summer time ‘yung napuntahan ko, ako lamig na lamig tapos ‘yung iba pumupunta lang sa retailer ng naka-sleeveless.” (Maybe I was simply shocked by the tradition of Americans concerning their meals. And although I went there during summer season, I was chilly then I noticed individuals going to the store wearing sleeveless apparel.)
Matrix11.Third theme with Cultural Exchange as class and its sub-categories
“Socialization” included meeting each kind of individual and working, bonding, and constructing friendships with them. Socialization was composed of sub-categories such as: “meeting individuals,” “working and bonding and constructing friendships with supervisors and foreign co-workers,” “building friendships in different colleges,” “amazement with the sensation of assembly new folks,” “being saddened by a lack of a pal,” and “realizing that culture and nationality were not reasons for hindering friendship.”
Simpson (2012) emphasised that international citizens must have a deeper understanding of various cultures to be energetic members of the worldwide community.
> Then nagkaroon din ng bond with the supervisors and staff chief ng bawat division (Then I had the time to bond with the supervisors and staff leaders of each department);
In-expect ko rin na iba’t ibang tao yung makakasalamuha ko with totally different cultures. (I anticipated that I’ll get to speak to completely different individuals with totally different nationalities.);
Magandang expertise siya kasi I love to spend time with them and know kung ano ‘yung mga meron sila. (It is a beautiful expertise as a result of I love to spend time with them and know what characteristics they have.)
Kingston (2013) stated that a few of the benefits of cultural trade applications in the Unites States have been seeing worldwide college students construct their private relationship with the Americans by working and interacting with them and learning extra about their culture. The Work and Travel Program allowed the scholars to fulfill with new folks and practice them the method to communicate because there have been individuals from different cultures who were working together in numerous workplaces.
> Expected na namin na sobrang focus nila sa work na kapag ganitong oras dapat nandito ka. So, expected namin na madidisiplina talaga kami. (We anticipated that they were very centered on their work. When they said a particular time, you ought to be there. Hence, we expected that we would be disciplined.);
‘Yung have the ability to share the values and tradition of the Filipino kasi ‘yung mga supervisors namin nagtatanong din sila anung meron sa Pilipinas ganu’n (that I was in a place to share the values and tradition of the Filipino since my supervisors asked us concerning the Philippines);
. I started working with totally different nationalities tapos ‘yung mga naging ka-work ko rin, they were from totally different nations. Merong from Kenya, from Nepal tapos Romanian din ‘yung iba. Magandang expertise siya kasi I like to spend time with them and know kung ano ‘yung mga meron sila. (I set to work with totally different nationalities. There had been folks from Kenya, Nepal, and Romania. It was a fantastic experience, since I beloved to spend time with them and find out about them.);
It also allowed me to fulfill with folks from completely different nationalities.
Matrix12.Third theme with Socialization as class and its sub-categories
“Adaptability and flexibility” centered on learning to turn into accustomed with the customer’s behavior, and likewise talked in regards to the adaptation of the individuals to the different local weather encountered and skilled overseas. “Adjustment periods” have been composed of the sub-categories: “adjusting to prospects,” “experiencing and adjusting to completely different climate,” “feeling hard on adjustment periods,” and “Pakikisama (Getting alongside well),” and “learning to adjust.”
Giolando (2015) talked about that vital components corresponding to a information of a overseas language, interpersonal and intercultural communication with the other nationalities, being open to new ideas and environments, and being ready for difficult and surprising conditions have been becoming useful as time glided by. This was visible with the experiences gathered and shared by the participants themselves.
> Kasi malayo ka family mo, ibang iba ‘yung setting, ‘yung tradition, kailangan mong mag- adopt talaga para ayun mag get alongside kayo ng mga kasama mo (Because you are removed from your family, the setting is different. You must adapt to their culture so that you simply can get along with your mates and co-workers);
… ikaw nalang yung makikisama, since ikaw yung nandoon sa bansa nila. So parang study to be versatile, yun ‘yung pinaka-term doon. Learn to be flexible, kahit nasaan ka, kasi hindi mo alam kung ano yung pwedeng mangyari.” (… you must be the one to get together with them since you’re of their country. The very term is to be taught to be versatile because you don’t know what may happen);
Work and Travel as an entire, ang pinakanatutunan ko is dapat talaga you start to adjust kasi hindi naman on a daily basis kung ano ‘yung gusto natin, gusto rin nung iba tapos hindi rin laging same tradition (What I realized from work and journey as a complete is that you really need to begin adjusting since not all we want can additionally be what others want. This is as a end result of culture can additionally be different);
siguro in general, siyempre parang trabaho na nga kasi talaga siya, parang hindi mo nga mapi-please lahat, lalo na worker ka, could authority ka, pero siyempre dahil yung ‘customer is all the time right’ nga, talagang kailangan mong ikaw ang mag-a- adjust sa kanila.” (Maybe normally, since this is type of a real job, one can’t please all people. Yes, as an employee, one has the authority, but since, the customer is always right, one needs to adjust to them.).
Integrating an international portion into an American larger schooling was detractingly essential in creating a workforce with the capacities and angle to grab the chance in experiencing the world’s hardest challenges of interdependence like homesickness, climate change, illness, economic inequality, and plenty of surprising things (Giolando, 2015). This was supported by the responses below:
> … dwelling abroad was good and dangerous. Good thing was having the flexibility to live independently, and dangerous factor was difficulty in adjusting. You had to do everything on your own and you could not rely upon anybody kasi (because you had to stand on your own, I was able to exercise it and be dependent sufficient na nung umuwi ako (when I returned). Feeling ko tuloy ang matured ko na (I really feel I really have matured) ultimately;
minsan nafi-feel mong homesick ka parang iba pa rin talaga ‘yung pakiramdam nagkakaroon ka ng ibang lahing kaibigan, could nabubuong household doon. (Sometimes you’ll really feel homesick; it’s still completely different to have pals that are foreigners. One will build household there.)
These experiences were important to form a better end result and development of an individual as he/she realized and understood others.
Matrix13.Third theme with Adaptability and Flexibility as class and its sub-categories
The experiences encountered and gathered instantly from the Work and Travel participants themselves have been categorized into themes via thematic analysis. Such themes have been thought-about and used in coming up with the output of the research within the type of pointers. Hence, these tips established from the different experiences of the individuals would serve as a future reference and foundation for a greater expertise and alternative to the succeeding generations.
Based on the info generated, the next material was created to assist information future Work and Travel individuals. The data above have been used as foundation for the narrative content material of the emergent program guide. Likewise, pictures taken by a number of the members were used as visual materials that revealed the significant experiences that had been highlighted by them. The ensuing guide serves as a mere starting point for a draft on which the final design could be developed. Hence, inventive selections made in the creation of the information usually are not considered last as they did not go through a formal design course of by a graphic designer or layout artist.
Figure2.Sample pages of the Work and Travel Guide for Participants Conclusion and
The elementary aim of this research was to discuss the Work and Travel experiences of Filipino Tourism college students and use those experiences to give you a set of tips that can be used as a reference not solely by the long run Work and Travel individuals but also by the tourism field.
The outcomes based on interviews revealed that a lot of the members have the opportunity to know the industry nicely and improve their capabilities. Since most of the college students are assigned to be meals service employee or journey attendants in a theme park or housekeepers in several resorts and resorts, they’ve been exposed to the standard operating procedures within the hospitality trade. This has improved their knowledge and skill in that industry since supervisors and higher-ranking persons have already guided and educated them to turn into better professionals and better variations of themselves as workers of their chosen area. In addition to this, participants have additionally enhanced both their interpersonal and intrapersonal expertise in the means of precise work and journey. A lot of them gained confidence in speaking English while they had been in this system.
Participants have additionally undergone totally different cultural exchange experiences for better personal growth. Since the beginning of the program, members have skilled being away from their households. The only individuals they know in a overseas country are their friends and classmates. Because of this, members discovered to stand on their very own and turn out to be unbiased. In reality, several of the individuals have traveled just to be with their pals in a unique state which some consider to be a big transfer on their part.
Participants have been capable of follow intercultural immersion. Since individuals are abroad to work as part of this system, it is inevitable for them to talk to the locals of said country. In reality, they have earned friends that they’ve met through the length of this system. Also, individuals experienced the host country’s local foods and culture. They even had the time to share their Filipino tradition. Indeed, during the length of their keep abroad, the members enriched their knowledge of and skills in coping with the local culture. Also, the individuals learned to adapt to the environment that is totally different from their usual environment.
Finally, as this study was primarily based primarily on personal accounts of what transpired throughout their keep in a foreign land, their collective accounts constitute shared and divergent opinions that emerge from real experiences of students who aspire to work overseas after they graduate, all of that are legitimate and worthy of attention. Public opinion, being a collective opinion of the folks in a society on an issue or an issue, resonates with these of the students in this study in that overseas Filipino employees (OFWs) have equally experienced being separated from a social assist structure that pressured them to adapt in a overseas country; hence, the public opinion among OFWs that exist at the macro degree are literally mirrored by those of students at the micro degree. And yet, students who participate in Work and Travel Programs possess a perspective that OFW dad and mom have lengthy transcended as they took on duties in a family of their very own. As a result, within these students lie public opinion that bridges the issues of young who experience being alienated from their very own OFW parents, and those of the latter as they tackle roles of OFWs informally. As such, the work and travel program, seen from the public opinion lens, could also be considered a valuable source of opinions that draw from mindfulness and compassion, attainable only because the youth in the Work and Travel Program are able to tackle the subjectivity of mother or father OFWs who discover themselves typically misunderstood by their very own children. Hence, the data arising from this paper supplies access to an opinion that one can not often discover in kids of OFWs or OFWs themselves. These opinions can be used to develop packages that mitigate the sense of loss and alienation of youngsters of OFWs that always remain unaddressed by universities that search to coach them.
Sharon Manguerra, PhD is a school member of the Tourism Program of St. Paul University Manila. Her co-authors are her mentees in the identical program who graduated in 2017. Her research curiosity lies in tourism, management, and quality efficiency methods.
She could be reached at St. Paul University Manila, 680 Pedro Gil Street, Malate, Manila, Philippine or by e-mail at
Date of submission: Date of the evaluate outcomes: Date of the decision: